Gerhard Schröder is the former Federal Chancellor of Germany. After completing an apprenticeship and graduating from secondary school, he began studying law and passed the first state examination in 1971, with the second state examination and admission to practice law completed in 1976. Between 1980 and 1986, and again between 1998 and 2005, he was a member of the German Bundestag. 1990 election to minister-president of the State of Lower Saxony. On October 27, 1998, he was sworn in as the seventh chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, a position that he maintained until 2005. He is currently chairman of the shareholders’ committee of the European-Russian pipeline company Nord Stream AG, and is a freelance lawyer in Hannover.